Magnesium (chemical symbol Mg) is an alkaline earth metal and one of the ten most common elements on the planet. It occurs naturally as a bivalent cation, usually in the form of inorganic salts, including carbonate such as magnesite MgCO3) and dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) as well as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). In foods, magnesium is more commonly included in compound form, associated with proteins or in the form of salts.
Functions of magnesium
Magnesium belongs to the group of essential bulk elements. The human body contains 11.5-16,5 mmol of magnesium/kg of body weight. For a 70 kg adult, this equates to a quantity of around 24 g. Roughly 60-65 % of the body's total stores are found in the bones, 27 % in the musculature. The remaining 6-7 % are distributed amongst other soft tissue (liver, kidneys, heart). Only around 1 % are allotted to plasma (normal range in serum: 0.8-1,2 mmol/l). Of this, 53 % are present in ionised, free form; the rest are complexed or protein-bound. In the human organism, magnesium is present exclusively as a bivalent cation (Mg2+) and fulfils a variety of functions as a nutrient and active ingredient.
- Bones and masticatory system. Around 50 % of the total body's stores of magnesium are found in the bones and teeth. Magnesium is involved here in the form of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and magnesium phosphate (Mg3(PO4)2) as an integral component of the hard tissue such as bones and joints and bone mineralisation. Magnesium contributes in this way to the maintenance of normal bones and teeth.
- Enzyme catalysis. Magnesium is a cofactor or allosteric activator of around 300 enzymes. Reactions in which phosphate groups of ATP are transferred to an acceptor or phosphorylated compounds to ADP are of particular relevance in this regard. Magnesium is therefore involved in the energy generation in the mitochondria, thus contributing to a normal energy metabolism. The activation of amino acids and protein biosynthesis are dependent on magnesium such that the mineral substance contributes to normal protein synthesis. Nucleic acid, DNA and RNA synthesis are also controlled by magnesium meaning that it also plays a role in the division of cells.
- Ion transport. Numerous ion pumps and channels (including Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, various calcium and potassium channels) are dependent on magnesium. Magnesium in this way contributes to electrolyte equilibrium and the normal function of the nervous system and the musculature. It therefore plays a part in the normal mental function and contributes to the reduction in tiredness and fatigue.
- Magnesium is a physiological opponent (antagonist) of calcium.
- A latent magnesium deficit is comparably common; in around 50 % of cases, a cellular magnesium deficiency is present in often normal serum or plasma values.
Information on production technology
- INTERCELL Pharma process various forms of magnesium, depending on quantitative and qualitative requirement. Products are galenically converted on the basis of organic (generally higher bio-availability) or inorganic (usually higher elemental content) magnesium salts.
- INTERCELL Pharma has a specially developed filling technology which enables the maximum quantities of certain magnesium compounds to be incorporated in one capsule as well as combining magnesium compounds with one another.
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